The demographic dividend occurs when fertility rates drop; and and a bulge of people move through the society creating a reduced dependency ratio. A definition can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_dividend. You might ask what impact this has on testing. Several countries (in the world) are currently experiencing a demographic dividend right now. Some are just entering it, other are in the middle and some are exiting it very quickly (more quickly than they would like). With Quality Control (Software Testing) being a worldwide industry, it has been easy in the past few years to send the testing where the population is booming. This has kept costs low and reduced pressure for automation and consideration of ways of doing things in a more planned fashion. As the demographic dividend passes and there are few or no places to get a large labour force the pressure to innovate will return. So will the requirement to do things right the first time.